鏈€杩戯紝鍑犱綅閲嶉噺绾ф妧鏈叕鍙哥殑棰嗗鑰呭叕寮€棰勬祴浜嗙墿鑱旂綉锛?/span>iot鎴朓oe锛屼竾鐗╀簰鑱旂綉锛夌殑鐖嗙偢鎬у闀裤€傚敖绠″湪鍒濇湡锛岀墿鑱旂綉甯傚満鐨勮〃鐜板苟鏈揪鍒伴鏈燂紝浣嗙幇鍦ㄤ技涔庡彲浠ヨ偗瀹氾紝瀹冩湁鏈涢蹇殑鍔犻€熷闀裤€傞殢鐫€鏇村厛杩涚綉缁滄妧鏈紙渚嬪5g鏃犵嚎缃戠粶锛夌殑鍑虹幇锛屽浠婄殑iot鍑犱箮鍙互瀹炵幇鎵€鏈夎澶囧強鍐呭鐨勪簰杩烇紒鏃犵枒锛岃繖绉嶆妧鏈浆鍨嬬殑瑙勬ā灏嗘槸鎯婁汉鐨勶紝骞跺皢鍦ㄤ俊鎭骇涓氫腑鍒涢€犲法澶х殑鏈轰細銆?/span>

figure 1 鍚?/span>iot 缃戠粶杩炴帴灞傛 锛?/span> iot networking hierarchy锛?/span>


鐗╄仈缃戜綔涓哄鐜版湁浜掕仈缃戞妧鏈殑婕旇繘锛屼繚鎸佷簡鐩稿悓鐨勫眰娆$粨鏋勶細浠庨泦涓紡鏍稿績缃戠粶鍒拌竟缂樿仛鍚堬紝鏈€鍚庡埌鎺ュ叆璁惧銆傚ぇ閲忔暟鎹湪鎵€鏈夎繛鎺ョ殑鑺傜偣涔嬮棿鏉ュ洖浼犺緭銆?/span>

figure 2 鍚勭骇iot 鎶借薄灞傦紙iot abstraction layers锛?/span>

瀹為檯涓婏紝鐗╄仈缃戠殑涓昏鍔熻兘鏃犵枒涓轰竴涓法閲忓埌鈥?span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px;">涓嶅彲鎬濊鈥?span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px;">鏁版嵁鐨勪紶杈擄紝瀛樺偍鍜屽鐞嗐€傚埌鐩墠涓烘锛屼簰鑱旂綉涓婄殑鎵€鏈変俊鎭拰鏁版嵁澶ч儴鍒嗘槸鐢变汉绫诲垱閫犵殑锛屾垨鑰呰嚦灏戞槸鍦ㄤ汉绫荤殑甯姪涓嬪垱閫犵殑銆備絾鏄殢鐫€鐗╄仈缃戠殑鍙戝睍锛屾櫤鑳借澶囧皢鍦ㄧ墿鑱旂綉涓婄敓鎴愭洿澶氱殑鈥滄満鍣ㄥ浜衡€濇暟鎹強鈥滄満鍣ㄥ鏈哄櫒鈥濇暟鎹€傛牴鎹?/span>idc鐨勭爺绌讹紝鍒?/span>2025骞达紝鐢辩墿鑱旂綉鐢熸垚鐨勬暟鎹€婚噺灏嗕负79.4 zb锛屽嵆1021锛?/span>10鐨?1娆℃柟锛?span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px;">瀛楄妭銆備负浜嗗鐞嗘暟鍗佷嚎涓?/span>iot鑺傜偣鐢熸垚鐨勬捣閲忔暟鎹紝澶勭悊鍣ㄥ拰瀛樺偍鎶€鏈兘闇€瑕?/span>鎬ラ渶鍔犻€熷彂灞曚互鍙樺緱鏇村姞渚垮疁鍜岄珮鏁堛€?/span>


鏁版嵁瀛樺偍鍜屽鐞嗗彲浠ュ湪浜戯紝鏍稿績缃戠粶锛岃竟缂樼綉缁滄垨璁惧鏈韩涓繘琛屻€傚湪鏍稿績鍜岃竟缂樼綉缁滀腑锛?/span>pcm鍙互鐢ㄤ綔涓轰富鍐呭瓨鈥斺€旂敤浜庡鍔犲唴瀛樻€诲閲忓苟鍚屾椂鍑忓皯鍐呭瓨璁块棶寤惰繜鍜屾垚鏈€傚熀浜嶱cm鐨勫瓨鍌ㄤ骇鍝侊紙渚嬪鑻辩壒灏旂殑optane庐 dcpm锛夊彈鍒颁簡鏁版嵁涓績杩愯惀鍟嗙殑骞挎硾鍏虫敞鍜屾杩庯紝鍥犱负dcpm浜у搧宸蹭綋鐜板嚭鍦ㄦ彁楂樺瓨鍌ㄦ€ц兘鐨勫悓鏃堕檷浣庝簡鎴愭湰鐨勪紭鍔裤€?/span>


figure 3 intel optane庐 dcpm dimm modules on a server motherboard.

figure 4 iot 鑺墖瑙e墫-闄や簡鏃犵嚎鏀跺彂鍣ㄤ箣澶栵紝鍐呭瓨缁勪欢娑堣€楁渶澶氱殑鑺墖闈㈢н銆?/span>(anatomy of an iot device chip - other than the radio transceiver, memory components occupy the most chip area.)

闅忕潃鏇村鏁版嵁鐨?/span>浜х敓锛岄殢涔嬭€屾潵鐨勬槸鏁版嵁澶勭悊锛岃繖灏辨槸灏嗘暟鎹腑鍖呭惈鐨勪俊鎭彉鎴愬浜虹被绀句細鏈夌敤鐨勪笢瑗裤€備紶缁熺殑鍐?/span>璇轰緷鏇煎鐞嗗櫒鏋舵瀯骞舵湭璁捐鐢ㄤ簬姝ょ被鐨?/span>鏁版嵁瀵嗛泦鍨嬩换鍔★紝鍥犳淇℃伅浜т笟鐣屾鍦ㄥ紑鍙戝拰閮ㄧ讲鏂扮殑璁$畻浣撶郴鏋舵瀯浠ュ鐞嗘墍璋撶殑鈥?/span>澶ф暟鎹?/span>鈥?/span>銆備笟鐣岀壒鍒叧娉ㄤ竴绉嶇о涓?/span>鈥?/span>鍐呭瓨鍐呰绠?/span>鈥?/span>锛?/span>cim锛夌殑鏂颁綋绯荤粨鏋勶紝璇ヤ綋绯荤粨鏋勫皢鏌愪簺鏁版嵁澶勭悊鍣ㄧ疆浜庝富瀛樺偍鍣ㄤ腑锛屼互瀹炵幇鏋侀珮鏁堢殑鏁版嵁璁块棶銆備絾鏄敱浜庣幇鏈夋妧鏈檺鍒?/span>鐨勫洜绱?/span>锛岃繖绉嶇湅浼肩畝鍗曠殑鎯虫硶寰堥毦瀹炵幇銆?/span>


褰撳鐞嗗櫒闇€瑕佸湪杩戣窛绂诲鐞嗘暟鎹椂锛屾渶鐩存帴鐨勬柟娉曟槸鍦ㄥ悓涓€鑺墖涓婃瀯寤哄鐞嗗櫒鍜屽唴瀛樸€備絾鏄紝鐢变簬鐜版湁鐨勫唴瀛樺埗閫犲伐鑹?/span>涓庢爣鍑?/span>cmos閫昏緫宸ヨ壓鐨勫樊寮傦紝鎵€鏈夊綋鍓嶇殑瀛樺偍鎶€鏈兘鏃犳硶浠ヤ紭鍖栫殑鏂瑰紡鏉ュ仛鍒拌繖绉嶇被鍨嬬殑闆嗘垚銆傚湪杩欐柟闈紝pcm鍏锋湁鐪熸鐨勭嫭鐗逛紭鍔匡紝鍥犱负pcm鐨?/span>鍒堕€犲伐鑹鸿嚜濮嬩究鍩轰簬鏃犵紳闆嗘垚鍒版渶鍏堣繘鐨?/span>cmos宸ヨ壓涓€傝繖浣垮緱pcm鍙互鐢ㄤ綔鈥?/span>鍐呭瓨鍐?/span>鈥?/span>鎴?/span>鈥?/span>杩戝唴瀛?/span>鈥?/span>璁$畻鐨勪富瀛樺偍鍣紝骞?/span>鍙湪鍚屼竴鑺墖涓婅璁?/span>瀵逛簬鏁版嵁澶勭悊鍔熻兘寮哄ぇ鐨勫鐞嗗櫒銆傜敱浜?/span>pcm鐗规畩鐨勭浉鍙樼數闃诲€?/span>鐗规€э紝鍙互浣跨敤鏁板瓧锛屾ā鎷熺敋鑷?/span>鈥?/span>绁炵粡褰㈡€?/span>鈥?/span>鏂规硶鏉ュ鐞嗘暟鎹紝杩欎娇pcm鎴愪负浜嗕竴涓噸瑕佺殑鏂拌绠楃郴缁熸妧鏈┍鍔ㄥ姏銆?/span> pcm涓庢暟鎹鐞嗘妧鏈殑闆嗘垚蹇呭皢浣挎柊鐨勮绠楁柟寮忔垚涓哄彲鑳斤紝骞?/span>璁㊣ot鏁版嵁鐨勫鐞?/span>浠庝腑鍙楃泭銆?/span>


鏈€鍚庯紝鐩镐簰杩炴帴鐨勮澶囦篃鍙互浠?/span>pcm鎶€鏈腑鍙楃泭銆傚浜庤澶囦笂鐨勬暟鎹瓨鍌紝闄や簡鏇挎崲浼犵粺鐨?/span>nor鎴朜and 瀛樺偍鍣紝pcm鍑€熷叾nvm灞炴€у拰瓒呭揩閫熺殑璁块棶鏃堕棿锛屽彲浠ョ‘淇濊繖浜涜澶囩殑鏈€浣虫€ц兘銆傚疄闄呬笂锛岀敱浜?/span>pcm鍏锋湁鎺ヨ繎dram鐨勬€ц兘锛屽洜姝ゅ彲浠ュ皢鍏剁洿鎺ヨ繛鎺ュ埌鐗囦笂绯荤粺锛?/span>soc锛?/span>涓祵鍏ュ紡mcu鐨勫鐞嗗櫒鎬荤嚎浣滀负鎵€璋撶殑鈥滅揣瀵嗚€﹀悎瀛樺偍鈥濓紙tcm锛夛紝浠庤€岀畝鍖栧苟鍔犻€熶簡绯荤粺鍚姩杩囩▼鍙婂鍏抽敭浜嬩欢鐨勫搷搴斿苟澧炲己浜嗗畨鍏ㄦ€э紝鍥犱负鎵€鏈夊叧閿暟鎹缁堝彲浠ラ殣钘忓湪mcu鑺墖鍐呴儴銆?/span>鏃犲璐ㄧ枒锛屽畨鍏ㄦ€у湪iot璁惧鐨勫姛鑳戒笂鍗犱簡鏋佸ぇ鐨勯噸瑕佹€с€?/span>

鍦ㄧ墿鑱旂綉璁惧涓娇鐢?/span>pcm鐨勫彟涓€涓富瑕佷紭鍔挎槸杈惧埌鈥?span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px;">闆?/span>鈥?span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px;">寰呮満鍔熻€楃殑娼滃姏銆傚綋鐗╄仈缃戣澶囪繘鍏ュ緟鏈烘垨鐫$湢鐘舵€佹椂锛屾槗澶辨€у唴瀛樼粍浠堕渶瑕佸缁堥€氱數浠ヤ繚鎸佹暟鎹椿鍔ㄣ€備娇鐢ㄩ潪鏄撳け鎬?/span>pcm鏃讹紝鍙互灏嗘暣涓姱鐗囨繁搴︽帀鐢典互娑堣€楀緢灏戠殑鍔熺巼銆傚浜庡ぇ澶氭暟鐢垫睜渚涚數鐨勮澶囪€岃█锛岃繖鍙妭鐪佸ぇ閲忕數鑳斤紝鍥犱负杩欎簺璁惧鐨勫緟鏈哄姛鑰楃害鍗犲叾鎬诲姛鑰楃殑30锛呫€?/span>

 


杩囧幓鍥涘崄骞存潵锛屽崐瀵间綋鎶€鏈殑杩涙鏃犵枒鏄鑷翠粖澶╃墿鑱旂綉鍙戝睍鏈€閲嶈鐨勬帹鍔ㄥ洜绱犮€傛濡傛垐鐧?/span>路鎽╁皵锛?/span>gordon moore锛変簬1970骞村墠鍚庨娴嬬殑閭f牱锛屾櫠浣撶鎬ц兘姣?/span>2骞村ぇ绾﹀鍔犱竴鍊嶏紝鍚屾椂鎴愭湰涔熼檷浣庝竴鍗娿€備粬鐨勯娴嬫槸鍩轰簬鍗婂浣撳埗绋嬪紑鍙戝拰mos鏅朵綋绠$嚎鎬х缉鍑忕悊璁虹殑瑙傚療缁撴灉銆?/span>

figure 5 鎽╁皵瀹氬緥涓?/span>intel澶勭悊鍣ㄨ繘灞曪紙moore's law with intel processor evolution锛?/span>


鍦ㄧ粡鍘嗕簡鎽╁皵瀹氬緥鍥涘崄澶氬勾涔嬪悗锛屾湡闂磋瀹氬緥涓哄崐瀵间綋鍣ㄤ欢鎬ц兘鐨勬彁鍗囨彁渚涗簡涓€鏉℃妧鏈殑璺緞锛岃€屽浠婄户缁惌涔?/span>mos缂╁噺鈥?span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px;">渚胯溅鈥濈殑鏂规硶浼间箮宸叉帴杩戝熬澹般€傚敖绠′竴浜涙妧鏈汉鍛樹粛鐒跺0绉板皢浼氭湁鈥滄洿娣辩殑鎽╁皵瀹氬緥鈥濓紙more moore锛?span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px;">锛屼絾涔熸湁璁稿鍏朵粬浜洪€夋嫨閲囧彇 鈥滄洿澶氱殑鎽╁皵瀹氬緥鈥?锛坢ore then moore锛?span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px;">閫斿緞銆?/span>

 

闅忕潃鎴戜滑鎺ヨ繎鍗冲皢鍒拌揪鐨勫崐瀵间綋鎶€鏈?/span>鈥滃崄瀛楄矾鍙b€濓紝pcm鎶€鏈凡娓愯繘鎴愮啛骞堕殢鏃跺噯澶囨敮鎸佹妧鏈珵璧涚殑涓嬩竴绔欙紝鏃犺鍏惰蛋鍚戜綍鏂广€?/span>


iot 灏嗗甫鍔ㄤ竴涓?span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; background-color: rgb(248, 249, 250);">鏇村姞鏁村悎鐨勪俊鎭骇涓氱殑鍙戝睍锛屾暣涓骇涓氶摼寰€鍚庣殑鍙戝睍涔熷繀椤昏寰數瀛愭妧鏈殑鏀寔銆傚湪鐩墠涓ゅぇ涓嶅悓鎶€鏈矾寰勪笅锛孭cm鏄竴鍊嬪弻璺緞鐨勬妧鏈€傝鎴戜滑鎷洰浠ュ緟pcm鎶€鏈甫杩汭ot浜т笟鐨勬垚鍔燂紒


figure 6 pcm浣滀负鍗婂浣撴妧鏈殑鍙岃矾寰勮в鍐虫柟妗?锛圥cm as a dual-track  semiconductor technology solution.)





pcm in the iot era


recently, some heavy-weight technology company leaders have openly predicted an explosive rise of the internet of things (iot, or ioe, internet of everything).  although at its beginning, iot market did not perform as predicted, now it seems certain that it is headed for accelerated growth.  with the advent of more advanced networking technologies such as the 5g wireless networks, the iot can now indeed interconnect almost everything!  undoubtedly, the scale of such technology transformation will be phenomenal and will create tremendous opportunities in the it marketplace.

iot, as an evolution to existing internet technology, maintains the same hierarchical architecture: from the centralized core networks to edge aggregation and finally to the access devices.  massive amounts of data travels back and forth between all the connected nodes.

in fact, the main function of the iot network is undoubtedly the transmission, storage and processing of the unimaginable amounts of data.  up until now, all the information and data on the internet has been mostly created by, or at least, with help from humans.  but as iot grows, the smart devices will generate much more machine-to-human and machine-to-machine data on the iot.  according to idc, the total amount of data generated by 2025 will be 79.4 zettabytes(zb), which is 1021 bytes.  both the processor and storage technologies need to evolve to become both cheaper and efficient in order to handle the massive data generated by the billions of iot nodes.

data storage and processing can happen in the cloud, at the core network, the edge network or in the device itself.   at the core and edge networks, pcm can be used as main memory to increase memory capacity at the same time reducing the access latency and cost.  pcm based storage products such as intel鈥檚 optane dcpm have received much attention and welcomed by data center operators, as the dcpm product have been shown to increase storage performance while reducing cost.

  with more data, along comes the processing of data, which is to turn the information contained in data into something useful to the human society.  traditional von neumann processor architecture was never designed for such data intensive tasks, so new computing paradigms are being developed and deployed to process the so called 鈥淏ig data鈥?  a new architecture called compute-in-memory (cim) has been of particular interest to the industry, in which some processor resides within the main memory to allow for extremely efficient data access.  this seemingly simple idea turns out to be very difficult to realize due to major technology limitations.  

when a processor needs to handle the data at close range, the most straightforward way is to build the processor and the memory on the same die.  however, all the current memory technologies do not allow this type of integration due to major process differences with the standard cmos logic process. in this regard, pcm has a truly unique advantage, as the pcm manufacturing has been developed to seamlessly integrate into the most advanced cmos process.  this allows pcm to be used as the main memory for in- or near-memory computing, with powerful processors designed on to the same die.  due to pcms special properties, the data can be processed either using digital, analog, or even neuromorphic methods, all of which can be implemented using pcm technology, this makes pcm a significant new technology driver.  the integration of pcm and data processing technology will definitely enable and immensely benefit new ways of computing.

lastly, the inter-connected devices can also benefit from pcm technology.  for on-device data storage and processing, other than replacing the traditional nor/nand flash storage, pcm can ensure top performance of these devices with the its nvm property and super-fast access time.  in fact, with near-dram performance, pcm can be directly interfaced to the processor bus of the embedded mcus, simplifying the boot process, and enhance security as all critical data can be always hidden inside the mcu chip.

another major benefit for using pcm in the iot devices is the potential of 鈥渮ero鈥?standby-power.  when iot devices goes into stand-by or sleep, the volatile memory components needs to be always powered on to keep the data alive.  when using the non-volatile pcm, the entire chip can be put into deep power-down to consume very little power.  this is a significant power savings as for most battery powered devices, their stand-by power consumption can account for roughly 30 percent of its total power usage.

the semiconductor technology advancement during the past 4 decades in undoubtedly the most important enablement factor that eventually led to the iot evolution.  as gordon moore predicted since 1970 that the transistor performance roughly doubles every 2 years, while cost is reduced by half.  his prediction was based on observations from process development and mos transistor scaling theory.  

after over four decades of moore鈥檚 law, which provided a crystal-clear path for semiconductor performance advancements, the mos scaling 鈥渇ree-ride鈥?seems to be nearing its end.  while some technologists still claim that there will be 鈥淢ore moore鈥? there are also many others taking the 鈥淢ore than moore鈥?pathway.  

as we approach the impending semiconductor technology crossroads, pcm is strongly poised to support the next leg of the technology race no matter where its headed.  

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