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浣滀负閲嶈鐨勫崐瀵间綋浜у搧绫诲瀷涔嬩竴锛屽瓨鍌ㄥ櫒绾﹀崰鍏ㄧ悆鍗婂浣撲骇鍊肩殑涓夊垎涔嬩竴銆傛暟鎹樉绀猴紝2020骞村叏鐞冨瓨鍌ㄥ櫒鏀跺叆澧炲姞135浜跨編鍏冿紝鍗?020骞存暣涓崐瀵间綋甯傚満鏀跺叆澧為暱鐨?4%銆?/p>



瀛樺偍鍣ㄥ競鍦烘瑙?/strong>




浠庡競鍦鸿妯℃潵鐪嬶紝褰撲笅鏈€涓绘祦鐨勫瓨鍌ㄥ櫒鏄疍ram锛孨and flash鍜孨or flash锛岃繖涓夎€呭崰鎹簡鎵€鏈夊崐瀵间綋瀛樺偍鍣ㄨ妯$殑95%宸﹀彸锛屽挨鍏舵槸鍓嶄袱鑰咃紝鍗犳€婚噺绾?鎴愶紝甯傚満瑙勬ā鍧囧湪鏁扮櫨浜跨編鍏冦€?/span>

瀛樺偍鍣ㄩ鍩熺殑鍩烘湰绫诲瀷 鏉ユ簮锛氱淮鍩虹櫨绉? 闀挎睙璇佸埜鐮旂┒鎵€

鍏朵腑锛孌ram 2018骞寸殑甯傚満瑙勬ā宸茶揪鍒?000浜跨編鍏冿紝鏍规嵁ic insights鏈€鏂伴娴?棰勮鍒?026骞村叏鐞僁ram甯傚満瑙勬ā鏈夋湜杈惧埌1219浜跨編鍏冨乏鍙炽€傜浉瀵笵ram鍜孨and鏉ヨ锛孨or flash鐨勫競鍦鸿灏忕殑澶氾紝鍏ㄧ悆瑙勬ā绾?0浜跨編鍏冿紝鍒嗘暎绋嬪害涔熸洿澶с€?/span>

鍗婂浣撳瓨鍌ㄥ櫒鏄竴涓珮搴﹀瀯鏂殑甯傚満锛孌ram鍜孨and flash鍩烘湰琚墠涓夊ぇ鍏徃鍖呮徑锛屼笖杩戝勾鏉ュ瀯鏂▼搴﹂€愭鍔犲墽銆傛牴鎹腑鍥介棯瀛樺競鍦虹殑鏁版嵁鏄剧ず锛?020骞达紝dram甯傚満95%鐨勪唤棰濊涓夋槦銆丼k娴峰姏澹拰缇庡厜鍗犳嵁锛岃€屼笁鏄熴€侀摖渚犮€佽タ閮ㄦ暟鎹€佺編鍏夈€丼k娴峰姏澹€佽嫳鐗瑰皵鍒欏崰鎹簡nand甯傚満绾?9%鐨勪唤棰濄€?/span>

鍏蜂綋鐪嬭繖涓夊ぇ瀛樺偍鍣紝浠栦滑鍚勬湁涓嶅悓锛?/span>

dram鏁版嵁鏄撳け锛屽閲忓皬銆?/strong>灏界dram澶氶」鎬ц兘閮藉緢浼樼鈥斺€旂撼绉掔骇鍒殑寤惰繜锛屾暟鍗丟b/s鐨勫甫瀹斤紝鎺ヨ繎浜庘€滈暱鐢熶笉鑰佲€濈殑瀵垮懡锛涚劧鑰屽畠鏄槗澶辨€у瓨鍌ㄥ櫒锛屽嵆鏂數鍚庢暟鎹細涓㈠け锛岃€屼笖锛屽叾鎴愭湰姣旈棯瀛橀珮锛屽閲忎篃杈冨皬銆?/span>

nand flash寤惰繜闀匡紝瀵垮懡鐭紝骞抽潰寰缉宸插埌鏋侀檺銆?/strong>鍏舵瘡娆″啓鍏ユ暟鎹椂闇€瑕佹柦鍔犻珮鍘嬶紝璁╃數瀛愮獊鐮存櫠浣撶鐨勬哀鍖栬啘杩涘叆娴姩鏍呮瀬锛岃繖涓€杩囩▼浼氬姘у寲鑶滈€犳垚涓嶅彲閫嗙殑鎹熷锛屾€ц兘鏈€濂界殑slc nand锛岃鍐欐鏁颁篃鍙湁10涓囨宸﹀彸锛岃€屽樊涓€浜涚殑mlc銆乀lc鐨勮鍐欏鍛藉潎浠ュ崈娆′负閲忕骇銆?/span>

nor flash鐗圭偣鏄姱鐗囧唴鎵ц锛圶ip锛孍xecute in place锛夛紝鍗冲簲鐢ㄧ▼搴忎笉蹇呭啀鎶婁唬鐮佽鍒扮郴缁烺am涓紝鑰屾槸鐩存帴鍦‵lash闂瓨鍐呰繍琛岋紝鏁呭叾浼犺緭鏁堢巼寰堥珮锛岃鍙栭€熷害蹇紝鍦?~4mb鐨勫皬瀹归噺鏃跺叿鏈夊緢楂樼殑鎴愭湰鏁堢泭锛屼富瑕佽鐢ㄦ潵瀛樺偍绋嬪簭銆傜劧鑰孨or鐨勫櫒浠剁粨鏋勮姹傚叾鍦ㄨ繘琛屾摝闄ゅ墠鍏堣灏嗘墍鏈夌殑浣嶉兘鍐欏叆0锛岃繖灏变娇寰楀叾鎿﹂櫎閫熷害寰堜綆锛?/strong>鍚屾椂鐢变簬闂瓨鍦ㄥ啓鍏ユ暟鎹箣鍓嶏紝鍧囪姹傝繘琛屾摝闄わ紝鏁呰繖涔熶細褰卞搷鍒癗or鐨勫啓鍏ラ€熷害銆?/span>

缁间笂鎵€杩帮紝杩欎笁绫讳富娴佸瓨鍌ㄥ櫒閮藉瓨鍦ㄥ悇鑷殑浼樼己鐐癸紝骞朵笖闅忕潃鎶€鏈殑鍙戝睍锛屼粬浠殑缂虹偣涔熷湪琚€愭笎鏀惧ぇ銆?/span>

鐜版湁瀛樺偍鎶€鏈潰涓村法澶ф寫鎴?/strong>




灏忓瓨鍌ㄥ崟鍏冨昂瀵?(cell size)銆侀珮鎬ц兘 (performance) 浠ュ強浣庡姛鑰?(power consumption) 涓€鐩存槸瀛樺偍鍣ㄤ笟鑰呮寔缁拷姹傜殑鐩爣銆?/span>

褰撳崐瀵间綋鍒剁▼璧板埌14nm 浠ヤ笅锛屽崐瀵间綋宸ヨ壓杩佺щ鍒?fin-fet (fin field-effect transistor锛岄硩寮忓満鏁堝簲鏅朵綋绠?鍚庯紝璇ユ妧鏈棤娉曠洿鎺ュ鐢ㄥ湪鏃㈡湁鐨勪竴浜涘祵鍏ュ紡瀛樺偍鍏冧欢涓娿€傚啀鑰咃紝鏈潵浜哄伐鏅鸿兘 (ai) 鍙婅竟缂樿绠?(edge computing) 绛夐珮璁$畻鑳藉姏鐨勯渶姹備娇寰楃幇瀛橀珮瀹归噺瀛樺偍鍣紝濡?dram銆丯and 闂瓨鐨勯珮鑰楃數鍙婇€熷害闂宸叉棤娉曡窡涓婇渶姹傜殑鑴氭銆?/span>

瀛樺偍鍣ㄥ瘑搴︿笉鏂彁楂橈紝鍩烘湰鍘熶欢灏哄鍦ㄤ笉鏂缉灏忥紝cpu瀵瑰瓨鍌ㄥ櫒瀹归噺闇€姹備笉鏂鍔狅紝杩欎簺闂鍦ㄦ湭鏉ュ皢浼氳秺鏉ヨ秺涓ラ噸銆?/span>

鍗婂浣撶殑鏍稿績鏄懇灏斿畾寰嬶紝绠€鍗曡灏辨槸閫氳繃鎶婂崟浣嶅厓鍣ㄤ欢鍋氱殑瓒婃潵瓒婂皬锛屾潵鎻愰珮鍗曚綅鏅跺渾涓婄殑瀛樺偍瀵嗗害鍜屽姛鑳姐€傜幇鏈夊瓨鍌ㄦ妧鏈紙dram鍜孎lash锛夐兘闈复鍚屾牱鐨勯棶棰樷€斺€斿崐瀵间綋宸ヨ壓缂╁井鍖栦笉鑳界户缁缉灏忋€?/span>

涓庢鍚屾椂锛屽瓨鍌ㄥ櫒娑堣€楀お澶氱數鍔涖€傜墿鑱旂綉 (iot) 鍜岀щ鍔ㄨ缃娇鐢ㄧ數姹犵數鍔涜繍琛岋紝鍏跺瓨鍌ㄥ櫒蹇呴』璋ㄦ厧閫夋嫨锛屽洜涓哄畠浠秷鑰楀ぇ閮ㄥ垎鐨勭數姹犵數鍔涳紝闄嶄綆浜嗙數姹犱娇鐢ㄦ椂闂淬€?/span>

涓嬩竴浠gщ鍔ㄦ灦鏋勫皢涓轰汉宸ユ櫤鑳藉強杈圭紭璁$畻瀵煎叆鏇撮珮鐨勮绠楄兘鍔涢渶姹傦紝鍚屾椂瑕佹眰鏇翠綆鐨勫姛鑰椾互婊¤冻娑堣垂鑰呯殑鏈熸湜浠ュ強鍦ㄤ弗宄荤殑甯傚満绔炰簤涓幏鑳溿€傚綋鐒惰繖浜涘繀椤讳互浣庢垚鏈疄鐜帮紝鑰岃繖灏辨槸鐜版湁瀛樺偍鍣ㄦ妧鏈潰涓寸殑鎸戞垬銆?/span>

鎬荤粨鑰岃█锛?strong style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">鐜版湁瀛樺偍鍣ㄥ叿鏈夊唴澶栧瓨鎬ц兘涓嶅尮閰嶃€佸唴瀛樹笉鍏峰闈炴槗澶辨€с€佸瀛樺井缂╅毦搴﹀ぇ绛夐棶棰橈紝鍥犳鏂板瀷瀛樺偍寮€濮嬪彈鍒板箍娉涘叧娉ㄣ€?/strong>鏈変笟鍐呬汉澹寚鍑猴紝鏂扮殑瀛樺偍鎶€鏈繀灏嗗彇浠g幇鏈夊瓨鍌ㄦ妧鏈紝杩欐槸鍘嗗彶鍙戝睍鐨勫繀鐒惰秼鍔裤€?/span>

鏂板瀷瀛樺偍鑳借в鍐充粈涔堥棶棰橈紵




鐩墠锛屾祦琛岀殑鏂板瀷瀛樺偍鎶€鏈富瑕佹湁mram銆丷eram 銆丳ram 浠ュ強feram銆?/span>


pcm锛圥hase change ram锛夛細鐩稿彉闅忔満瀛樺偍鍣紝姝ょ被瀛樺偍鍣ㄥ埄鐢ㄦ潗鏂欐櫠鎬佸拰闈炴櫠鎬佷箣闂磋浆鍖栧悗瀵肩數鎬х殑宸紓鏉ュ瓨鍌ㄤ俊鎭紝杩囩▼涓昏鍙互鍒嗕负set鍜孯eset涓ゆ銆?/span>

fram锛團erromagnetic ram锛夛細閾佺數瀛樺偍鍣紝缁撴瀯涓嶥ram澶ц嚧鐩稿悓锛屽熀鏈崟鍏冪敱涓€涓狹os绠″拰鐢靛缁勬垚锛屼絾dram鐢靛鐨勭數浠嬭川鏉愭枡鏂數鍚庢棤娉曠户缁瓨鍌ㄧ數鑽凤紝fram鍒欎娇鐢ㄦ柇鐢靛悗鐢佃嵎涓嶄細涓㈠け鐨勯搧鐢垫櫠浣撲綔涓虹數浠嬭川锛屽綋鍦ㄥ钩闈㈢數瀹逛腑鍔犵數鍘嬫椂锛岄搧鐢垫櫠浣撳湪鐢靛満浣滅敤涓嬩細褰㈡垚鏋佸寲鐢佃嵎锛屾鍚戠數鍘嬩笅鎵€褰㈡垚鐨勬瀬鍖栫數鑽疯緝浣庯紝鍙嶅悜鐢靛帇涓嬫墍褰㈡垚鐨勬瀬鍖栫數鑽疯緝楂橈紝杩欑浜屽厓绋冲畾鐘舵€佷娇鍏跺彲浠ヤ綔涓哄瓨鍌ㄥ櫒銆?/span>

mram锛圡agnetic ram锛夛細纾佹€ч殢鏈哄瓨鍌ㄥ櫒锛屽畠闈犵鍦烘瀬鍖栬€岄潪鐢佃嵎鏉ュ瓨鍌ㄦ暟鎹€?/span>

reram锛圧esistive randomaccess memory锛夛細闃诲彉寮忓瓨鍌ㄥ櫒锛屽吀鍨嬬殑reram鐢变袱涓噾灞炵數鏋佸す涓€涓杽浠嬬數灞傜粍鎴愶紝浠嬬數灞備綔涓虹瀛愪紶杈撳拰瀛樺偍浠嬭川銆?/span>

杩欎簺鏂板瀷瀛樺偍鍣ㄦ垨鑰呭叿鏈夋洿蹇殑瀛樺彇閫熷害锛屾垨鑰呭叿鏈夋洿楂樼殑鑰愮敤鎬э紝鎴栬€呭叿鏈夋洿灏忕殑瑁哥墖灏哄銆佹洿浣庣殑鎴愭湰鍜屽姛鑰楋紝鐢氳嚦鏈夊彲鑳戒负鏈潵瀛樺偍鍣ㄥ唴璁$畻 (in-memory compute)鐨勫紑鍙戞彁渚涙敮鎾戙€?/span>

鏂板瀷瀛樺偍鎶€鏈殑鍑虹幇锛岃兘瑙e喅褰撲笅涓绘祦瀛樺偍鍣ㄧ殑鍔熻€楅棶棰樸€傛澶栵紝杩欎簺鏂板瀷鐨勫瓨鍌ㄥ櫒閮芥槸闈炴槗澶辨€х殑锛屾墍浠ヤ笉闇€瑕佸埛鏂板畠浠€?/span>

涓?dram 鐩告瘮锛屾柊鍨嬪瓨鍌ㄦ妧鏈彲浠ヨ嚜鍔ㄩ檷浣?20锛?鐨勫姛鑰椼€傜敱浜庡畠浠兘鍙互鍦ㄤ笉鎿﹂櫎鐨勬儏鍐典笅瑕嗙洊鏃ф暟鎹紝鍥犳鍙互鑺傜渷闂瓨鎵€闇€鐨勯珮鎿﹂櫎鑳借€楋紝浠ュ強鎱㈡摝闄ゅ懆鏈熷紩璧风殑寤惰繜 (璇ュ睘鎬хо涓哄師浣嶇紪绋?(in-situ programming))銆?/span>

涓庨棯瀛樼浉姣旓紝杩欎簺鏂版妧鏈殑鍐欏叆杩囩▼鑳介噺瑕佹眰闈炲父浣庯紝鍑忓皯鎴栨秷闄や簡瀵逛綆鏁堢數鑽锋车鐨勯渶姹傘€傛渶鍚庯紝鎵€鏈夎繖浜涙柊鎶€鏈兘鎻愪緵闅忔満鏁版嵁璁块棶锛屽噺灏戜簡淇濈暀涓や釜鍓湰鈥斺€斾竴涓湪闂瓨锛屼竴涓湪 dram鈥斺€旂殑闇€姹傘€?/span>

鍥犳浣跨敤鏂板瀷瀛樺偍鍣ㄦ妧鏈潵鍙栦唬褰撲粖鐨勪紶缁?dram nand 闂瓨鏋舵瀯锛屽皢甯︽潵鏄捐憲鐨勭殑鍔熺巼鑺傜渷浠ュ強鎬ц兘鎻愬崌銆?/span>

浜嗕笉璧风殑pcm




褰撳墠鐨勬柊鍨嬪瓨鍌ㄥ潎澶勪簬璧锋闃舵锛屽叾涓璓cm(phase change memory)鎶€鏈彂灞曟渶鎴愮啛锛屾槸鍞竴涓€涓湁澶у閲忥紝澶ц妯¢噺浜х殑鎶€鏈€?/span>

pcm(phase change memory)鍗崇浉鍙樺瓨鍌ㄥ櫒锛屼篃鏈変汉绉颁箣涓?pram (phase-change ram)锛岃椤规妧鏈凡缁忔湁鍑犲崄骞寸殑鐮旂┒鍘嗗彶锛孖ntel 鑱斿悎鍒涘浜?gordon moore 鏃╁湪 1970 骞村氨鍙戣〃浜嗕竴绡囨弿杩版棭鏈熷師鍨嬬殑璁烘枃锛氱浉鍙樺瓨鍌ㄥ櫒閫氳繃鐑兘鐨勮浆鍙橈紝璁╃浉鍙樻潗鏂欏湪浣庣數闃荤粨鏅?(瀵肩數) 鐘舵€佷笌楂樼數闃婚潪缁撴櫠 (闈炲鐢? 鐘舵€侀棿杞崲銆?/span>

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涓夋槦 2008 骞村熀浜?90nm 宸ヨ壓鍒跺 512mb 鐩稿彉瀛樺偍鍣ㄨ姱鐗囷紱2011 骞村熀浜?58nm 宸ヨ壓鍒跺 1gb 鐩稿彉瀛樺偍鍣ㄨ姱鐗囷紱2012 骞村熀浜?20nm 宸ヨ壓鍒跺 8gb 鐩稿彉瀛樺偍鍣ㄨ姱鐗囷紱2014 骞村彂甯冪浉 鍙樺瓨鍌ㄥ櫒鐨勪骇涓氭姤鍛娿€?/span>

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浠?002骞磋捣锛屼腑绉戦櫌涓婃捣寰郴缁熸墍灏卞紑濮嬫敾鍏充笅涓€浠f柊鍨嬬浉鍙樺瓨鍌ㄥ櫒锛屽苟鎵挎帴鎴戝浗鈥滄瀬澶ц妯¢泦鎴愮數璺埗閫犺澶囧強鎴愬宸ヨ壓鈥濄€佲€?73璁″垝鈥濈瓑鐩稿叧浠诲姟銆?011骞达紝涓闄笂娴峰井绯荤粺鎵€銆佷腑鑺浗闄呫€佸井鑺瓑浼佷笟缁勫缓鐧句綑浜轰骇瀛︾爺鍥㈤槦锛屾垚鍔熺爺鍙戝嚭鎷ユ湁鑷富鎶€鏈殑鐩稿彉瀛樺偍鍣紝闅忓悗杩涗竴姝ュ悜宸ョ▼鍖栭鍩熷彂灞曘€?/span>

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